[BLANK PAGE] INTFRNATIQN Al CHLORIDE CONCRETE CONSTRUCTION [BLANK PAGE] CCA INTFRNATIONAI i I 2S ^^m ^^H^i^^H 1 AGE] CCA Copyright, 1925, by THE SOLVAY PROCESS COMPANY Syracuse, New Yom CONTENTS The Use of Solvay Calcium Chloride Comparative strength ratios Acceleration Hardening Cold weather use Waterproofing Directions for using Solvay Calcium Chloride Amount to be used and cost Service I L 3 The Salvador Rodriguez Memorial Building at Tampa, Florida. Concrete plays a large part in this type of construction. Solvay Calcium Chloride was used to the complete satisfaction of the architect, builders and owners. URING the last decade there has probably been no more important development in concrete construc- tion than the use of Calcium Chloride for attaining a rapid set and early strength. The purpose of this booklet is to present the results ob- tained by The Solvay Process Company through experi- ments and practical experience, indicating the value of Calcium Chloride as an essential product in modern con- crete construction. Within the past few years there has been a constantly increasing demand on the part of architects, engineers and contractors for a material or process which would accelerate the hardening of concrete; which would give it early strength, and at the same time not affect the final setting of the concrete — the most desirable accelerator being the one which would hasten the hardening, and still not adversely affect the final setting. f 5] w <?- V? THE USE OF CALCIUM CHLORIDE WITH PORTLAND CEMENT Exhaustive tests have thoroughly proven that the ma- terial which best meets these necessary and important re- quirements is Solvay Calcium Chloride. It not only gives early strength and hardness to concrete, but at the same time densities, makes it more water-proof and aids the concrete to resist freezing at winter tempera- tures. Solvay Calcium Chloride is a white, dry, flaky chemical, extremely hygroscopic and dissolves almost instantly in water. VALUABLE RESULTS THOROUGHLY PROVEN That the use of Calcium Chloride with Portland Cement is beneficial has been thoroughly established as a result of the extensive tests made by the United States Bureau of Standards, American Society for Testing Materials, Port- land Cement Association, United States Engineers, Lewis Institute and The Solvay Process Company. The first important investigation in this connection was conducted some years ago by the Bureau of Standards co- operating with the United States Engineers' office, Mem- phis, Tennessee. Tests were made with many different materials. Of these, only Calcium Chloride showed any beneficial results. In the Standard Mortar Test, made with 3 :i Ottawa Sand, it was found that the addition of 2 per cent, to 4 per cent. Commercial Calcium Chloride (by weight of the mix- ing water) increased the tensile strength from 155 per cent, to 230 per cent, by the end of 24 hours, and from 173 per cent, to 190 per cent, at the end of 48 hours, without affect- ing adversely the initial set of the mixture.  During the past two years a subcommittee of Committee C-9 of the American Society for Testing Materials has con- ducted a cooperative series of tests on accelerators of the Calcium Chloride type. These tests, without exception, show a marked increase in early strength of cement mortar which contains 2 per cent, to 3 per cent. Calcium Chloride. Thousands of tests have been made by many different organizations, and while there are some variations in re- sults, due to different brands of cement, kinds of aggregate, and other variable factors, a summary of the tests shows that 1 per cent, to 4 per cent, of 74 per cent. Calcium Chloride added to 100 pounds of cement accelerates the hardening of the concrete to a marked extent. The American Furniture Mart at Chicago, Illinois. Henry Raeder, Architect, Geo. C. Nimmons &? Company, and N. Max Dunning, Associates, Wells Brothers Construction Company, Builders. Solvay Calcium Chloride was used in the concrete. [ 7] i P. &■ A ■ Pkotn The world-famous building of the Chicago Tribune at Chicago, Illinois, Howells and Hood, Architects. R. C. Wiedbolt Company, contractors for the caissons and founda- tion work, successfully used Solvay Calcium Chloride m all the cement work. Professor Duff A. Abrams, in charge of the Structural Materials Research Laboratory of the Lewis Institute, Chi- cago, Illinois, recently completed a study of the use of Cal- cium Chloride m concrete. After testing 7500 compression specimens it was determined that Calcium Chloride pro- duced an increase in concrete strength as shown by the following table: COMPARATIVE STRENGTH RATIOS Concrete Untreated Treated with 2 to 4% Calcium Chloride . . . 2 days 100 7 days 100 28 days 100 s mo. IOO 170 1*5 no I 12 i yr IOO 3 yrs 100 117 11 Under average conditions, concrete that has been treated with the proper quantity of Calcium Chloride will attain at the end of 48 hours the strength equal to that of un- treated concrete after 7 days. Referring again to the results of Professor Abrams' study, it is to be noted that it was his conclusion that: "In the use of Calcium Chloride no advantage was gained for percentages of the commercial product greater than 2 or 3 per cent., corresponding to a chlorine content of 1 to i}4 per cent. The amount when used m mixes of about 1:5 and in consistencies suitable for building construction, showed an increase in strength of from 100 to 200 pounds per square inch. For richer mixes and drier consistencies the strength in- crease was greater and for leaner mixes and wetter concretes it was less. 1 '' It was also determined that the effect of Calcium Chloride in cement mortar was essentially the same as in concrete. Not only is Calcium Chloride of value therefore, in the actual concrete work, but it is classed by this conclusion as invaluable to practically all construction work.  \ The Studio Building. Boston, Massachusetts. W. A. and H. A. Root, Builders. Solvay Calcium Chloride was used aa accelerator and also as jn jid in prevention of ireezing in concrete pi j around steel pillars during winter months. In view of the results of tests and investigations under actual working conditions, it has been definitely established that: The quality of the concrete is improved — the strength is increased with Solvay Calcium Chloride. With the increasing demonstrations of its value, in con- nection with concrete work, Calcium Chloride is being specified by many of America's leading architects and en- gineers. In fact, a number of the most prominent buildings recently constructed were completed more quickly through the use of Solvay Calcium Chloride, with resultant savings to the owners, and credit to the architects, engineers and contractors. i iu ] , . I J SOLVAY CALCIUM CHLORIDE ACCELERATES, STRENGTHENS, AIDS CONCRETE TO RESIST FREEZING TEMPERATURES AND RENDERS IT MORE WATER-PROOF Solvay Calcium Chloride, as a part of the gauging water, thoroughly permeates the concrete and acts uniformly throughout the entire mass. In contrast to many integral materials, which do not dissolve readily in the gauging water, Solvay is extremely soluble, dissolving almost in- stantly, resulting in a uniformly finished structure. This property makes it almost impossible for inexperi- enced workmen to jeopardise the success of the work. To produce satisfactory results it is only necessary to add i to 4 pounds of the Calcium Chloride to the gauging water for each baa of cement. ACCELERATES Tests made by the Bureau of Standards and The Solvay Process Company prove that Portland Cement, gauged by a solution of Solvay Calcium Chloride, attains greater strength in 48 hours than a corresponding mixture with plain water in 7 days. With Solvay, finishing is possible within a short time after pouring the concrete. Concrete placed at 8 o'clock can be finished by n o'clock. No overtime is required for fin- ishing concrete placed late in the afternoon — thus effecting considerable saving of money for the contractor. Further- more, Solvay-treated concrete sets at the bottom as fast as at the top, thereby producing a homogeneous mass. The early strength given to freshly poured concrete pre- vents the collapse of cell structure during the drying out period. It increases the crushing, tensile and abrasive strength. [ 11 1 The Dental Building, Boston, Massachusetts. Architects. McFarLnd and Laurie, Boston. The front of the building is constructed of cast stone manufactured by the Cambridge Cement Stone Co. Solvay Calcium Chloride was used to make the cast 6tone. I I The final set and strength of the concrete are in no way adversely affected by the use of Calcium Chloride. In fact, tests indicate the final strength is increased by its use. HARDENS AND DENSIFIES The use of Solvay Calcium Chloride increases the ce- menting qualities as well as tensile and compression strength of concrete. Through chemical action concrete is densified and hardened at the same time, which increases its resist' ance to dusting. Concrete or cement mortar gauged with Solvay Calcium Chloride will absorb considerably less water than when gauged with plain water. Owing to decreased porosity, the Solvay-treated concrete is more resistant to wear and also to acids and alkalies. These qualities are highly desirable m the construction of sidewalks and the floors of buildings, particularly fac- tories, garages, etc. The use of Solvay Calcium Chloride materially cuts down the usual period of delay experienced before placing the work in service and decreases mam- tenance expense by prolonging the life of floor surfaces. Solvay Calcium Chloride, because it is used integrally, hardens the entire mass and not just the surface. COLD WEATHER USE It is generally recognized that the use of Calcium Chloride in very cold weather is an absolute necessity inasmuch as it is impossible to maintain satisfactory working conditions under the ordinary or "natural 11 method of making concrete. It is not intended to imply that Calcium Chloride is a "cure-all 11 for perfect concrete construction under positive freezing conditions. The fact has been conclusively proven, however, that Solvay will lower the freezing point of water, [ 13 1 I and therefore of the mix, so that work can proceed into the cold months of the year and permit concrete to set at low temperatures. As Solvay hardens the concrete in about half the usual time, the chance of damage from freezing is naturally cut in half. The following table gives the recommended proportions of Solvay to use for different atmospheric temperatures: Expected Atmospheric Temperatures + 28 F. +20 F. + 15 F. Proportion of Solvay to Water 2 pounds of Solvay to 6 gallons of water 3 pounds of Solvay to 6 gallons of water 4 pounds of Solvay to 6 gallons of water The above table is based on using approximately 6 gal- lons of water to each bag of cement. However, the precautions usually taken to protect con- crete must be observed. The aggregate and water should be heated and the concrete covered or otherwise protected. Thin walls and also concrete subjected to high wind need greater protection than mass construction. The Portland Cement Association has published a bul- letin, "Precautions for Concrete Pavement Construction in Cold Weather/' The following is taken from this bulletin: "The only chemical recommended as an addition to the mixing water is Calcium Chloride. This material possesses the property of lowering the freezing point of water and accelerating the setting of the concrete. It is used by being dissolved in the mixing water. It is generally sold in crys- talline form and is readily soluble in water." In a very recent bulletin of the Portland Cement Asso- ciation it is stated that: I HI I I The Commonwealth-Atlantic National Bank Building, Boston, Massachusetts. Geo. W. Harvey Co., Builders. Solvay Calcium Chloride was used as an accelerator and as an aid in preventing the freezing of concrete in the mam floor slabs, top finish and in forms around the steel upright pillars. "In general the best results in concrete work carried out in extremely low temperatures will be secured by: (i) Heating the mixing water and aggregate; aggregate can best be heated by placing steam coils in the bins. (2) Protecting the work from wind and snow with canvas or temporary timber structures and heating interior by means of steam pipes or salamanders. (3) Using Calcium Chloride to lower the freezing point of the mixing water, and to increase the early strength of the concrete." [ 15 1 It is interesting to note in reference to the use of Cal- cium Chloride in reinforced concrete that it has been demon- strated that rusting is not progressive on steel completely embedded in calcium-treated concrete. Technical News Bulletin No. 75 issued by the Bureau of Standards, Department of Commerce, Washington, in commenting on "The Effect of Accelerators on Reinforcing Steer"' states as follows: "A number of 1:2:4 concrete and 1:3 mortar specimens in which steel rods have been embedded were broken dur- ing the past month, and an examination made of the rods. Calcium Chloride solutions had been used for some of the specimens as the gauging liquid. An examination was also made of expanded metal which had been embedded in small slabs prepared from mortar gauged with a proprietary compound of the accelerator type. Some of the foregoing specimens were five and others six years old and all had been stored out of doors and exposed to the weather. From this examination it is concluded that while Calcium Chloride tends to corrode the reinforce- ment, the corrosion does not seem serious or of a progressive nature with age, in cases where the reinforcement is com- pletely embedded in the concrete. However, when using accelerators, care should be taken to completely coat and embed the reinforcement and avoid pockets near it." WATERPROOFING QUALITIES The integral method of water-proofing concrete has been found to be the best, and is highly favored by engineers and contractors. The action of Solvay Calcium Chloride in accelerating early hardening gives strength to the concrete, preventing the collapse of the cell structure during the evaporation of the water. Porosity is thus reduced to a mini- mum and the concrete rendered dense and more water-proof. I »oi Solvay has a lubricating action on the cement, due, it is believed, to increasing the solubility of the silicates present. This causes the concrete or cement mortar to become more plastic and workable. Workmen like this "fatty 1 ' mix be- cause it means quicker work and easier troweling conditions. As a result the particles are cemented together, producing a smooth surface which is much more water-proof than one obtained with untreated concrete. Boston Chamber of Commerce Building, Boston, Massachusetts. \V. M. Evatt Company, Builders. Solvay Calcium Chloride was used in the main floor slabs set during winter months. [ 17 ] DIRECTIONS FOR USING SOLVAY The directions for using Solvay Calcium Chloride are so simple that it is possible to have the work done through' out by ordinary labor. It is important to remember that for best results not less than i pound nor more than 4 pounds of Calcium Chloride should be used to each bag of cement, except for free^e-resisting use, when up to 6 pounds can be used if necessary. To make up a standard solution of Solvay Calcium Chloride, fill a barrel, or other suitable container, in the proportion of two pails of water for each pail of Solvay, stirring until the Calcium Chloride is completely dissolved. The mixture will contain the following quantity of Calcium Chloride: 1 gallon 3.2 pounds of Calcium Chloride 1 quarts 2.4 pounds of Calcium Chloride 2 quarts 1.6 pounds of Calcium Chloride 1 quart 0.8 pound of Calcium Chloride Then mix the batch of concrete or cement mortar just as you have been in the habit of doing, except that for each bag of cement used add about 3 quarts of standard Solvay Calcium Chloride solution together with the necessary water. This quantity can be increased or decreased as needs require. Experience will doubtless suggest other methods for using Solvay, but the above is simple in practice and efficient in operation. CEMENT USED AFFECT RESULTS? Solvay Calcium Chloride may be used with any brand of Portland Cement, although the results obtained by the use of Calcium Chloride with different brands will vary to a slight extent. [ 18 l The new addition to the Boston Storage Warehouse, Boston, Massachusetts. W. M. Evatt Co., Builders. Solvay Calcium Chloride was used in the walls, floors, etc.. during the winter months. With most brands of Portland Cement the proper amount for general purposes is i pounds of Solvay Calcium Chloride to each bag of cement. Should this proportion not give the desired results, the amount may be slightly diminished or increased to suit requirements. In his most recent work Professor Abrams pointed out that the various brands used in his tests were in general similarly affected by the addition of Calcium Chloride. ( 19 1 The Meyer: rd Building, Chicago, Illinois. Mr. F. T. Bear, Contractor. Solvay Calcium Chloride used in the walls and floors. AMOUNT TO BE USED AND COST It has usually proven most satisfactory to use the quan- tity of cement going into each batch as a basis to determine the necessary amount of Calcium Chloride. Increasing the quantity of Calcium Chloride accelerates the initial harden- ing. Solvay Calcium Chloride east of the Mississippi costs approximately two cents per pound. In the Far West the cost will be slightly higher. The cost of using Solvay is small considering the time and labor saved and the better concrete produced. The quantity required for a given job can generally be estimated by figuring 2 pounds of Calcium Chloride to each bag of cement. The amount actually required on the job will depend on prevailing conditions, such as temperature, location, kind of mix, etc. [ 20] I SHIPMENT Solvay Calcium Chloride is shipped m non-returnable metal drums for which no additional charge is made. These standard drums contain 375 pounds net each. Solvay is also shipped in moisture-proof, paper-lined, burlap bags, containing 100 pounds net each. Calcium Chloride in bags requires the same weather protection as cement. The ease of handling the bags makes this container very attractive to many customers. The Solvay Process Company carries stock of Solvay Calcium Chloride in more than 75 cities in the United States, which insures prompt service with minimum trans- portation charges. In carload shipments direct from the plant the Traffic Department of the Company is especially equipped and prepared to facilitate delivery safely and economically. The Park Square Building, Boston, Massachusetts. Densmore, LeClear and Robbins, Architects, W. A. and H. A. Root, Builders. Solvay Calcium Chloride was used in cement mortar and in cement finish of all floors. $6,000 was actually saved in labor in placing floor finish through the use of Solvay Calcium Chloride. [ 21 ] . TECHNICAL SERVICE It is quite natural that in specific instances problems will arise relative to the use of Solvay Calcium Chloride, and while it has been the intent to give full particulars in this booklet, unusual conditions call for special treatment. With this in mind The Solvay Process Company desires that architects, engineers and contractors avail themselves of the facilities of its Technical Service Department. This service is gratis and gladly extended in the interests of Better Concrete Construction. ' THE SOLVAY PROCESS COMPANY Wing fe? Evans, Inc., Sales Department 40 RECTOR STREET, NEW YORK, N. Y. Boston Chicago Cincinnati Cleveland Detroit Pittsburgh Indianapolis Syracuse v mg part of the [it of The S Process Com pu itSyracua Other pbnts are located at Detroit, Michigan and Hut neon, ^ insae. I 22 ] f [BLANK PAGE] CCA INTFRNATIOMAl.